lang change

The present tense


There are two stems in the Serbian language: present and infinitive, and all verbal forms are formed from one or the other. The present stem is formed by dropping the personal suffix from the 1st p. sg. of the present tense.
Personal suffixes for the present tense are

sg. pl.
1st p. -m/-u -mo
2nd p. -te
3rd p. -e, -u/-ju

Only two verbs HTETI and MOĆI have the suffix -u in the first person singular.

Conjugation:
By combining the final vowel of the stem and the personal suffixes, we can divide all verbs in the present tense into the following three groups: 1)I/E 2)A/AJU 3)E/U

The first group I/E
The 'I' represents the final vowel of the present stem, whereas the 'E' represents the suffix for the 3rd p. pl.
učiti
1st group -im -imo učim učimo
-iš -ite učiš učite
-i -e uči uče

The second group: A/AJU
The 'A' represents the final vowel of the present stem, whereas the 'AJU' represents the suffix for the 3rd p. pl.
pričati
2nd group -am -amo pričam pričamo
-aš -ate pričaš pričate
-a -aju priča pričaju

The third group: E/U
The 'E' represents the final vowel of the present stem, whereas the 'U' represents the suffix for the 3rd p. pl.
čuti pisati
3rd group -(j)-em -(j)-emo čujem čujemo pišem pišemo
-(j)-eš -(j)-ete čuješ čujete pišeš pišete
-(j)-e -(j)-u čuje čuju piše pišu

The subject of the sentence is frequently omitted because the person and the number are indicated by the verb.
e.g. Ja pišem. = Pišem. / Oni pišu. = Pišu.

The third group of verbs has a sound alternation in the stem.
k>č plakati, plačem
g>ž lagati, lažem
h>š jahati, jašem
s>š pisati, pišem
z>ž stizati, stižem
t>ć sretati, srećem

The negative and interrogative form

The negative form
učiti
Ja NE učim. Mi NE učimo.
Ti učiš. Vi Učite.
On/Ona/Ono uči. Oni/One/Ona uče.

The verbs IMATI, HTETI and JESAM have special negative forms. The negation is written together with the verb.
imati hteti jesam
nemam nemamo neću nećemo nisam nismo
nemaš nemate nećeš nećete nisi niste
nema nemaju neće neće nije nisu

The interrogative form
studirati
DA LI ja studiram? DA LI mi studiramo?
ti studiraš? vi studirate?
on/ona/ono studira? oni/one/ona studiraju?

An interrogative sentence is formed by inversion using the interrogative particle LI.
npr. Studiraš li (ti)? Studira li (ona)? Studiraju li (oni)?

Reflexive verbs in the present tense
The form of reflexive verbs is represented by the verb plus the morpheme SE.
e.g. Tuširati se. Smejati se. Plašiti se. Ja se češljam. Vi se družite.

The affirmative form:
zvati se
Ja SE zovem... Mi SE zovemo...
Ti zoveš... Vi zovete...
On/Ona/Ono zove... Oni/One/Ona zovu...

The morpheme SE is placend in the second position in the sentence, after the subject.
The subject of the sentence is frequently omitted because the person and number are indicated by the verb. In this situation the sentence starts with the verb followed by the morpheme SE.
e.g. Zovem se... Zoveš se... Zovemo se...

The negative form:
zvati se
Ja SE NE zovem... Mi SE NE zovemo...
Ti zoveš... Vi zovete...
On/Ona/Ono zove... Oni/One/Ona zovu...

The morpheme SE is placed in the second position in the sentence, after the subject. The subject of the sentence is frequently omitted. In this situation the sentence starts with the negative form of the verb and is followed by the morpheme SE.
e.g. Ne zovem se ... Ne zoveš se ... Ne zovemo se ...

The interrogative form:
zvati se
DA LI SE ja zovem ... ? DA LI SE mi zovemo ... ?
ti zoveš ... ? vi zovete ... ?
on/ona/ono zove ... ? oni/one/ona zovu ... ?

The morpheme SE is placed in the second position in the sentence after the question marker DA LI.

The subject of the sentence is frequently omitted. In this situation the sentence starts with the question marker DA LI followed by the morpheme SE.
e.g. Da li se zovem ... ? Da li se zoveš ... ? Da li se zovemo ... ?

The interrogative form may also be formed by inversion, using the interrogative particle LI. The sentence then begins with the verb which is followed by the interrogative particle LI which in its turn is followed by the morpheme SE.
e.g. Zoveš li se (ti) ... ? Zove li se (on) ... ?

You can try below what you have just lernt. Write your answer and press Enter
Put the verbs into the appropriate forms of the present tense.
Novinari članke. (pisati)
Studenti lekcije. (učiti)
Da li on kao kuvar? (raditi)
Ti svakog dana hleb i mleko. (kupovati)
Mi Marija i Luka. (zvati se)
Krava jagode. (ne jesti)
Oni svakog jutra. (ne češljati se)
Da li vi kafu s mlekom? (želeti)

Put the verbs into the appropriate forms of the present tense.
Dobar dan.
Dobar dan.
Da li se Vi Bogoljub? (zvati se)
Da, ja Bogoljub. (jesam)
li košulje? (farbati)
Ne, košulje. (ne farbati)
Zašto košulje? (ne farbati)
Zato što ja, u stvari, sir. (praviti)
A sir, da li sir? (farbati)
Sir se , prijatelju moj. (ne farbati se)
Ja sir . (jesti)

Put the verbs into the appropriate negative forms of the present tense.
Pada kiša a ja kišobran. (imati)
Deca ni kabanice. (imati)
Miroslave, zašto sa mnom u bioskop? (hteti)
Vi ste išli na utakmicu a da idete na predstavu. (hteti)
Vuk zelen, vuk je siv. (jesam)
Mi Amerikanci, mi smo Srbi. (jesam)

Write down the 3rd p. sg. of these verbs in the present tense.
pisati
učiti
studirati
stanovati
hteti

Write down the 3rd p. pl. of these verbs in the present tense.
govoriti
zvati se
očekivati
plakati
imati

Write down the negative forms of these sentences.
Ona fotografiše ljude. Ona ljude.
Vi studirate biologiju. Vi .
Mi se dopisujemo. Mi .
Saša putuje u Beograd. u Beograd.
Ona se smeje lepo. lepo.
Oni pevaju u operi. u operi.
Ja se šetam. .
Ti govoriš engleski. .
Ona hoće da putuje u Grčku. Ona da putuje u Grčku.
Mi smo Francuzi. Francuzi.
Ja imam dvoje dece. dece.
Vi imate lepu kuću. Vi kuću.
Ti si dobar čovek. Ti .
Ja hoću čokoladu sa lešnikom. sa lešnikom.

Make questions for the given sentences.
Ti studiraš biologiju. Da li ti studiraš biologiju?
Mi učimo srpski. mi učimo srpski?
Saša putuje u Beograd. putuje u Beograd?
Oni se dopisuju. dopisuju?
Oni imaju svoju farmu. svoju farmu?
Ona putuje u Grčku. u Grčku?
Ti se šetaš. ?
Ti studiraš biologiju. Studiraš li ti biologiju?
Mi učimo srpski. Učimo mi srpski?
Saša putuje u Beograd. Saša u Beograd?
Oni se dopisuju. oni?
Oni imaju svoju farmu. oni svoju farmu?
Ona putuje u Grčku. ona u Grčku?
Ti se šetaš. ti?