lang change

Accusative


The accusative case indicates the goal of a verbal action, thus, the direct object of a transitive verb. Besides this (along with various prepositions), the accusative expresses: time, place, direction of movement, purpose etc.

Suffixes :
sg. pl.
m
-Ø: bulevar-Ø (= Nom.) -e: bulevar-e, momk-e
-a: momk-a, Mark-a, Đorđ-a (= Gen.)  
f
-u: žen-u, devojk-u -e: žen-e, devojk-e
-Ø: reč-Ø -i: reč-i
n
-o/-e: pism-o, polj-e (= Nom.)
-Ø: ime-Ø (= Nom.)
-a: pism-a, polj-a
   ime-n-a

1) The masculine gender nouns denoting animate and inanimate objects differ in the accusative case suffixes. Inanimate nouns have the same form as in the nominative, whereas animate nouns have the same suffix as in the genitive. This goes for matching ajdectives and pronouns as well. (e.g. Koga voliš? Volim svog momka. Šta voliš? Volim svoj grad.)
2) Neuter gender nouns (such as ime, vreme) in the plural have an extended stem by inserting the consonant -n-
(e.g. Nom. = Acc. sg.: ime-Ø, vreme-Ø; Nom. = Acc. pl.: ime-n-a, vreme-n-a)

Usage

1) direct object
This function is represented by nouns / noun phrases in the accusative without a preposition, and is governed by transitive verbs. This is given as the answer to the question: Koga? (for animate nouns) or Šta? (for inanimate nouns). (e.g. Koga slušaš? Slušam profesora. Šta čitaš? Čitam roman.)

2) place
Nouns / noun phrases in the accusative can also express place. There is a difference between expressing an aim (target) of the action and expressing the specific direction of movement.
a) An aim (target) of the action is represented by nouns / noun phrases in the accusative, preceded by the prepositions U or NA. This answers the question: Kuda?
(e.g. Kuda putuješ? Putujem NA more. Kuda žuriš? Žurim U školu.)

U is used with the names of towns (u Novi Sad, u Italiju), with nouns denoting closed places (u biblioteku, u park, u pozorište).
NA is used with the nouns denoting an open space, a large flat areas or the top of a certain area (na tenisko igralište, na fakultet, na more, na planinu), and with the nouns denoting some event (na izlet, na žurku).

b) The specific direction of movement in space is expressed by nouns / noun phrases in the accusative preceded by the prepositions NIZ, UZ and KROZ. This is given as the answer to the question: Kuda? Kojim putem?
(e.g. Kuda Jovan ide? Jovan ide NIZ ulicu / UZ stepenice. Kuda prolaziš? Prolazim KROZ stan.)

3) time
This is represented by nouns / noun phrases in the accusative preceded by the prepositions U and NA. This accusative is given as the answer to the question: Kada?
(e.g. Kada ideš u bioskop? U ponedeljak. Kada putuješ u Italiju? Na leto.)
Nouns denoting days in a week are preceded by the preposition U; and nouns denoting seasons are preceded by the preposition NA. (e.g. u ponedeljak, u utorak, u sredu, na leto, na jesen)

4) purpose
Purpose is expressed nouns / noun phrases in the accusative preceded by the preposition ZA. This is given as the answer to the questions: Za koga? (for animate nouns) or Za šta? (for inanimate nouns)
(e.g. Za koga je knjiga? Knjiga je za Milana. Za šta koristiš ovu šolju? Ovu šolju koristim za toplu čokoladu.)

You can try below what you have just lernt. Write your answer and press Enter
Fill in the gaps with the correct forms of the nouns given.
Gospođa Petrović piše . (poruka)
Tanja ima . (ćerka)
Ja volim . (kolači)
Mi volimo . (reka)
Mi gledamo . (kuće)
Kupujemo . (pokloni)
Posetili smo lepa . (sela)

Fill in the gaps with the correct forms of the given nouns including the appropriate prepositions.
Ja idem . (more)
Oni putuju . (Moskva)
Jovan ide . (žurka)
Tanja ide . (posao)
Žurim . (fakultet)
Putujemo . (Italija)
Idu . (bioskop)
Žurimo . (ručak)
Idemo . (izložba)
Ona žuri . (banka)

Answer the questions.
Kada počinje radna nedelja? Radna nedelja počinje . (ponedeljak)
Kada se završava radna nedelja? Završava se . (petak)
Kada idete na more? Idemo . (leto)
Kada Maja ide na trening ove nedelje? Maja ide na trening . (sreda)
Kada ptice odlaze na jug? Odlaze . (jesen)